Pišu: Dajana Kosanović i Suzana Pošmuga

U subotu, 18. ožujka 2017., u prostorijama muzeja Moderne i suvremene umjetnosti u Rijeci, a u sklopu izložbe Između tamo i tamo: Anatomija privremenih migracija kao dijela europskog projekta o migracijama, Risk Change, održan je okrugli stol o privremenim migracijama.

Na okruglom stolu pod nazivom Privremene migracije – liminalnost, ranjivost i rad raspravljalo se o zakonski i društveno nevidljivim migrantskim skupinama, a sudjelovali su predstavnici Centra za mirovne studijeIva Zenzerović i Julija Kranjec, Grupe 484 – Robert Kozma, BRID-a (Baze za radnički inicijativu i demokraciju) – Branimir Šloser i Iva Ivšić (BRID i MAZ – Mlade antifašistkinje Zagreba), te kulturna antropologinja Duga Mavrinac (udruga IPAK – Istraživački projekti i autorske koncepcije) i moderatorica Irena Bekić (IPAK).

Tijekom dvosatne rasprave predstavljala se problematika migrantskog rada te su se predlagala moguća rješenja kojim bi se zaštitila prava migrantskih radnika/ica. Raspravljalo se o zakonskim okvirima koji trenutno postoje, a tiču se navedene društvene skupine te o zakonima kojima bi se radnici/e mogli zaštititi od radne eksploatacije. Svaki od sudionika/ica je iznosio/la svoje stavove o navedenome problemu te njegova moguća rješenja.

Naime, rasprava je započela uvodom Duge Mavrinac, u kojemu je spomenula kako su statistički podaci o broju migrantskih radnika nepouzdani iz razloga što se veliki broj radnika/ica zapošljava ilegalno zbog čega se statistike između zemalja znatno razlikuju. No, ono o čemu se sigurno može govoriti je rastući broj muškaraca koji bivaju zaposleni u kućanstvu.

okrugli stol

Nadalje, zaključuje se da je zanimljivo kako se teško progovara o radničkim pravima u kontekstu kućanskoga/njegovateljskoga rada u koji nemamo konkretan uvid, osim jasne činjenice o radnom vremenu njegovateljica koje rade 24 sata dnevno tijekom 15 dana, s obzirom da žive u kućama obitelji za koje rade. Svakih 15 dana radnice njegovateljice se vraćaju svojim obiteljima. Problematika koja se ovdje javlja nije samo činjenica da su žene, koje rade kao njegovateljice u takvim radnim uvjetima, uvelike eksploatirane već i činjenica da se istima navedeni rad često uopće ne računa kao radni staž.

Robert Kozma iz Grupe 484 govorio je o razlozima odlaska radnika/ica iz vlastite države na primjeru srpskih migranata i tražitelja azila koji su mahom pripadnici romske zajednice. Iako se u medijima ovi ljudi prikazuju kao ‘lažni azilanti’ koji samo žele prebjeći u drugu državu i živjeti od socijalne pomoći provedeno istraživanje pokazalo je kako je tim istim radnicima zapravo jedina motivacija zarada, koja je podosta manja pa čak i teško ostvariva u vlastitoj državi. Kozma je također istaknuo kako radnici pristaju na eksploataciju u svrhu osiguranja vlasite egzistencije.

U nastavku rasprave sudionici i sudionice stola došli su do zaključka kako migrantski radnici nedovoljno poznaju svoja prava, nisu organizirani i upravo zato bivaju iskorišteni, no oni se ne žale.

Branimir Šloser iz Baze za radničku inicijativu i demokraciju (BRID), kazao je da se radnici trebaju boriti za svoja prava ako žele da se uistinu desi promjena na bolje. „Prava promjena se može dogoditi tek kada se organiziraju ljudi u borbi za svoja prava“, istaknuo je. Šloser smatra kako je najbolji način da se poboljša trenutni položaj radnika/ica njihovo informiranje i stvaranje sindikata koji bi se potom borili za prava istih.

Navedena javna rasprava završila je svjedočanstvima žena koje su i same iskusile ovakav oblik rada, a čije su priče dodatno potvrdile postojanje navedenih problema. Kao zaključak nameće se potreba za daljnjim radom na ovome području u svrhu poboljšanja uvjeta rada te kako bi se smanjili vidovi eksploatacije radne snage u inozemstvu. Kao što je već napomenuto u prethodnome odlomku, najbolje moguće rješenje je borba radnika za svoja prava jer ukoliko ih radnik ne pozna ili ne posjeduje on prestaje biti radnik i postaje – rob.


 

Authors:  Dajana Kosanović and Suzana Pošmuga

On Saturday, March 18th 2017, in the premises of the Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art, during the exhibition Between there and there: Anatomy of Temporary Migration wich is part of the European project about migration – Risk Change, was held a round table/lecture about temporary migration. 

During round table named Temporary migration – Liminality, vulnerability and labor participants discussed about not only legal, but also socially invisible migrant groups. Round table was attended by representatives of the Center for Peace Studies – Iva Zenzerović and Julija Kranjec, Group 484 – Robert Kozma, BRID (Base for Workers’ Initiative and Democracy) – Branimir Šloser and Iva Ivšić (BRID and MAZ – Young Antifascist Zagreb)cultural anthropologist Duga Mavrinac (Association IPAK – Research projects and authorial concepts) and moderator Irena Bekić (IPAK).

During two-hour debate the issues of migrant labor were represented and participants suggested possible solutions that could protect the rights of migrant workers. Lack of organization and lack of informed workers abroad were accentuate as the biggest issues, as well as lack of educated employers and other government bodies in field of migrant labor. Participants also discussed about legal frameworks that currently exist and are related to migrant social groups. They also mentioned the laws that should exist in order to protect migrant workers from labor exploitation. Every participant gave his/hers views on the above mentioned problem and its possible solutions.

The discussion began with Duga Mavrinac introduction, where she mentioned how statistical data on the number of migrant workers is unreliable because the large number of workers leave illegally what makes statistics between countries vary significantly. In spite of that one thing, we can say with certainty is that number of employed man in household as a caretakers is increasing. Furthermore, a conclusion is drawn that it’s interesting how difficult is to talk about labor rights when they are not that well-known except for working time which is 24 hours / 15 days. The problem that occurs here is not just the fact that women who work as caretakers in such labor conditions are greatly exploited but also the fact that those working hours often do not count as years of service.

okrugli stol

Robert Kozma from the Group 484 speaks up about reasons why people are leaving from their own country to another one for work and he explains it on examples of Serbian migrants and asylum seekers who are mostly members of the Roma community. Although the media representation of these people is negative and shows them as “bogus asylum seekers” who just want to escape to another country and live from social benefits, conducted research showed that these same workers leave only because they need to earn more money, which is for some reason nearly impossible for them in their own country. Kozma states that workers agree to be exploited in order to ensure existence for them and their families.

As the debate continues participants come to the conclusion that migrant workers do not know their rights, they are not organized and that is precisely why they are not complaining about the fact that they are being exploited. Branimir Šloser from BRID association said that workers should fight for their rights in order to make their work experiences better:

„The real change can happen only when people organize themselves to fight for their rights“! Šloser believes that the best way to improve the current situation is to inform and educate workers about their rights, as well as the creation of trade unions which would then fight for migrant workers rights.

The round table ended with the testimonies of women who themselves have experienced this kind of work (caretakers), and whose stories further confirmed the existence of stated problems.

In conclusion participants agreed that there is a need for further work in this area in order to improve working conditions so that  forms of labor exploitation abroad could be minimized . As it was already mentioned in the previous section, the best possible solution to improve labor conditions abroad is for workers to fight for their rights. Because, if worker does not know or even has any rights, he/she stops being a worker and becomes – slave.

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